Tracking the Russian Hybrid Warfare – Cases From Nordic-Baltic Countries

Av Patrik Oksanen, Minna Ålander, Karen-Anna Eggen, Jeanette Serritzlev, Marek Kohv, Bjarni Bragi Kjartansson, Ieva Bērziņa och Adam Roževič
Publicerad 27 maj, 2024
39 sidor

In this report, the Stockholm Free World Forum has gathered experts from all Nordic-Baltic states to showcase examples of Russian hybrid attacks against our countries. Russia employs a broad variety of tools in these coordinated attacks, including disinformation, cyber attacks, pranksters, vandalism, sabotage, twisting historical narratives, and even leveraging the Russian Orthodox Church for malign purposes. By seeking out and mapping weak spots and dividing lines within target countries, Russia aims to manipulate elections, sow societal discord, and undermine democratic institutions. These actions serve to challenge and weaken the Western-dominated, rules-based international order, which the Kremlin perceives as a threat to its great power ambitions.

The report emphasizes the urgency of countering these intensifying attacks, driven by Russia’s increasingly reckless strategic goals and disregard for consequences. Enhanced coordination and activity are essential to create a better deterrence against hybrid threats. To achieve this, it is suggested to establish a special mechanism within the NB8-framework to strengthen collective defense and safeguard the stability and democratic integrity of the Nordic-Baltic region.

Patrik Oksanen is resident senior fellow at Stockholm Free World Forum and responsible for CIDA. Patrik works as a freelance journalist and lecturer, and is also a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Military Sciences and the Royal Swedish Naval Society.

Minna Ålander is a research fellow at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs (FIIA) in Helsinki and a non-resident fellow at the Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA) in Washington, D.C.

Karen-Anna Eggen is a PhD Fellow and researcher for the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies at the Norwegian Defence University College.

Jeanette Serritzlev is a military analyst at the Royal Danish Defence Academy specialising in information warfare and hybrid threats, particularly in relation to Russia. In addition, she works with NATO’s information disciplines and doctrines.

Marek Kohv is the Head of the Security and Resilience Programme at the International Centre for Defence and Security (ICDS) in Tallinn.

Bjarni Bragi Kjartansson is an independent researcher, lecturer, and columnist specialising in hybrid threats.

Ieva Bērziņa, PhD, is a Senior Researcher at the Center for Security and Strategic Studies, National Academy of Defense of the Republic of Latvia, and an associate professor at Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences.

Adam Roževič is a policy analyst at the Eastern Europe Study Center, where he oversees the Center’s research programs.